Stochastic multicolor labeling is a popular technique in neuroscience and developmental biology. This type of cell labeling technique involves the introduction of a transgene construct containing fluorescent proteins (XFP) of different colors to label an organ or entire organism. Because each cell can have multiple copies of the transgene that will recombine independently, cells may acquire one of a variety of colors when a combination of XFP are expressed. Each cell remains the same color for its entire lifetime and daughter cells retain the same color, allowing for the fate mapping of cell populations over time. The ability to track single cell dynamics at the organism level has been made possible by tools that allow cells to become persistently fluorescent during development. Stochastic multicolor labeling systems, many based on Brainbow, now exist for a variety of species, cell types, and research applications.