Latest Posts

All Posts

Plasmids 101: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)

Posted by Marcy Patrick on May 15, 2014 11:33:00 AM

Bioluminescence and fluorescence from proteins such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) has likely existed in creatures such as jellyfish for millions of years; however, it took until the 1960s for scientists to begin to study GFP and deduce its biochemical properties. Now GFP and its fluorescent derivatives are a staple in the lab. GFP is used in research across a vast array of biological disciplines and scientists employ GFP for a wide number of functions, including: tagging genes for elucidating their expression or localization profiles, acting as a biosensor or cell marker, studying protein-protein interactions, visualizing promoter activity, and much more.

Read on to learn more about GFP, how scientists have evolved this versatile protein to suit their experimental needs, and some of the common applications in the lab.

Read More >

Topics: Plasmid Elements, Plasmids 101, Fluorescent Proteins

Plasmids 101: The Promoter Region – Let's Go!

Posted by Kendall Morgan on Apr 3, 2014 4:05:00 PM

Thus far in our Plasmids 101 series we've worked our way through the plasmid map: antibiotic resistance, origin of replication, and so on. Up to this point we can replicate our plasmid and make sure cells maintain it; the next step is getting the plasmid to express our gene of interest. Enter the promoter-- the element responsible for initiating the transcription of your insert into RNA.

In practice, the term "promoter" describes the combination of the promoter (RNA polymerase binding site) and operators (response elements). Promoters are about 100 to 1000 base pairs long and found upstream of their target genes. The sequence of the promoter region controls the binding of the RNA polymerase and transcription factors, therefore promoters play a large role in determining where and when your gene of interest will be expressed. 

Read More >

Topics: Plasmid Elements, Plasmids 101

Plasmids 101: Mammalian Vectors

Posted by Marcy Patrick on Mar 25, 2014 11:15:00 AM

Although plasmids do not naturally exist in mammals, scientists can still reap the benefits of plasmid-based research using synthetic vectors and cultured mammalian cells. Of course, these mammalian vectors must be compatible with the cell type they are tranfected into – a bacterial origin of replication (ORI) will not allow for plasmid replication in mammalian cells, for example, and a toxin that kills bacteria may not have any discernable effect on mammalian cells. In this blog post we will discuss how mammalian plasmids differ from their bacterial counterparts, including how replication occurs and whether selection is necessary for transfected cells.

Read More >

Topics: Plasmid How To, Plasmid Technology, Plasmids 101

Plasmids 101: Yeast Vectors

Posted by Marcy Patrick on Feb 25, 2014 2:11:00 PM

In our first few Plasmids 101 posts, we focused mainly on the elements required for plasmid maintenence within an E. coli cell, but vectors can be widely utilized across many different cell types and each one requires different elements for vector propogation. This post, along with a future companion post on mammalian vectors, will catch you up on the core replication and resistance features of yeast vectors and explain how they differ from the bacterial elements previously described.

Why Do Scientists Use Yeast Vectors?

Yeast are eukaryotes and thus contain complex internal cell structures similar to those of plants and animals. Unlike bacteria, yeast can post-translationally modify proteins yet they still share many of the same technical advantages that come with working with prokaryotes. This includes but is not limited to: rapid growth, ease of replica plating and mutant isolation, a well-defined genetic system, and a highly versatile DNA transformation system.

Read More >

Topics: Plasmid How To, Plasmid Elements, Lab Tips, Plasmids 101

Plasmids 101: How to Name Your Plasmid in 3 Easy Steps

Posted by Matthew Ferenc on Feb 13, 2014 8:00:00 AM

There are no universal rules for naming plasmids but here are some good guidelines to follow in order to ensure that people can quickly and easily identify what your plasmid contains and other important information.

Read More >

Topics: Plasmid How To, Lab Tips, Plasmids 101

Blog Logo Vertical-01.png

Subscribe to Our Blog