There are many, many different types of experiments carried out by scientists every day. Although the designs and outcomes may vary, one thing should be present in every experiment-based investigation of a hypothesis: proper controls!
For every experiment, an investigator needs a standard against which the results can be compared; results from an experiment lacking the proper controls are invariably inconclusive and unreliable. Proper controls provide the constant variables that enable the correct interpretation of the effect of the independent variable you are testing. Importantly, they demonstrate the functionality of your experimental system and help identify opportunities for troubleshooting or optimization within your experiment. Read on to learn more about the various controls that can be used for plasmid-based experiments.